Toicnes and Schawlow Microwave Spectroscopy. White. Introduction to Atomic Spectra. The late F. K. Richtmyer was Consulting Editor of the series from its. INTRODUCTION. TO. ATOMIC SPECTRA. BY. HARVEY ELLIOTT WHITE, PH.D,. Assistant Professor of Ph ysics, at the. University of California. McGRAW-HILL. – Buy Introduction to Atomic Spectra book online at best prices in india on Read Introduction to Atomic Spectra book reviews & author.

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Experimentally we have seen that doublet-term separations, in general, vary from element to element, from series to series, and from member to member.

Full text of “Introduction to Atomic Spectra”

Intensity Rules for the Zeeman Effect. Soc, A, ; A, ; see also Darwin, C. The most accurate spectroscopic measurements on hydrogen and ionized helium have been made by Houston. The K and L shells already being filled, the various possible excited states for the last bound electron 3s are Sp, 3d, 4s, 4p, etc. Since the probability density for the negative m states is the same as that for the corresponding positive m states, the sum of the probability densities for all negative m states is also a constant.

A comparison of these orbits with the corresponding hydrogen orbits shows that, due to penetratioD into the core, 3s and 3p are greatly reduced in size radially. The density curves are symmetrical about cp. It is convenient to remember that, for a given n it is the s orbit which comes closest to, and recedes farthest from, the nucleus, i.

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The sodium doublets are relatively much narrower than shown. Formulas representing abnormal series like d xd 3and d- in Fig. With somewhat definite knowledge concerning the quantum number n of the valence electron in the alkali metals, the integers ni and n 2 in Rydberg’s formula may be replaced by the total quantum numbers of the electron energy states. Carrying out the integration in Eq. Atomic and Molecular Physics.

It is to be noted in the doublet series CFigs. The radial function F 2as compared with G 2is extremely small and for hydrogen is of the order of magnitude of the square of the fine-struckire constant. It must be remembered that, while the kinetic energy increases with decreasing n, i.

V to radon 86, completes the third long period. Compare these values of p with the density-distribution curve in Fig.

Nuclear Interaction with One Valence Electron. On an energy diagram this means a lowering of the level, i. The Ritz Com- bination Principle. The complete configurations are written out in Table 5. It is therefore evident that an s electron, and necessarily a 4s electron, must have been added in place of the expected 3d electron, and this in turn must be due to the fact that the 4s electron is more tightly bound than the 3d electron.

The So-called “Reduced Mass” of the Electron. The quantum-mechanical picture, on the other hand, appears in the form of a probability-density distribution for the same electrons. This is in agreement with observation that all S states are single. At least four and possibly five of the predicted components may be said to have been resolved by Paschen. Zeeman Effect in Hyperfine Structure.


These series, classified as 30 principal series, 30 sharp series, and 70 diffuse series, were found to be combinations between 4 series of S terms, s u s 2s 3and s 4 ; 10 series of P terms, p Xf p 2p 3.

The first excitation potential and the ionization potential of each of the alkali metals are given in Table 6.

Assuming that the s introcuction p orbits in potassium penetrate only the shell of eight M electrons, compute the value of p M from Eq. IV, we return now to the orbital models a, b, c, and d Fig. Goudsmit for reading Chap. With a wave- h.e.whhite scale above, the lines, as can be seen in the figure, were given to ten’millionths of a millimeter, a convenient unit of length introduced by Angstrom and now called the Angstrom unit.

Upon reaching r mai again, there has been an advance, i. He therefore could write Eqs. The Anoma- lous Diffuse Series of Calcium. We are justified, therefore, in Table 4.

Introduction to Atomic Spectra

In view of the initial electron 1 Tate, J. The Angstrom unit Fio.

This result is in excellent agreement with theoretical values obtained from Eq. Every line to be used as standard was given to ten-millionths of a millimeter.