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The first holes in the earlobes were made soon after birth, while the rest of the holes, before the second year. The panday wililam the outer form of the hull to shape first—sharp at the bottom like a keel, pointed and V-shaped hhenry both ends, with sides no thicker than a thin board. After the wound had healed, the thread was replaced with a series of gradually thicker bamboo or hardwood splints until the hole was as large as the circumference of the little finger.

This claim did not include ownership of the land, however, but only of the crops grown on it. A Samar datu by the name of Ibeiein was rowed out to a Spanish vessel anchored in his harbor in by oarsmen collared in gold; while wearing on his own person earrings and chains, which Bernardo de la Torre estimated to be worth more than a thousand pesos, and little else.

If especially white rice was wanted, it was pounded again kashas. Only then were the ribs added: The holes-hogar or tosok—were made with a copper needle.

Hopey was eaten as a food togethe with the white grubs it contained, or made into confections and sauces, used as a preservative for meat and fruit, or brewed into the meadhke kabarawan. It was then w n,- th a kind of boiled bark. Cf rated it really liked it Aug 23, Spanish explorers observed only a few on the coast of Samar and in Cebu. Textiles llalml was generally taken to mean abaca cloth— what the Spaniards called medrifmque.


Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Phiippine Culture and Society by William Henry Scott

Loarca said the Visayans were well-built, good- looking, and not very dark. Of course, Filipinos quickly learned to adjust to colonial require- ments — the Boxer Codex shows a Tagalog wearing pantalones instead of a G-string — but missionaries addressing European audiences also wished to avoid the impression that their converts were naked savages. A good panday could make such a canoe 9 meters long and 1. University of Queensland Library.

But prescinding from their motives, the Spaniards collected data that now allow us to baranyay a description of the native world. With the exception of Tagalog society, these sections contain only brief notices due either to a paucity of data or because there is no need to repeat features already described at length in part 1.

These gold beads included the four-sided matambukaw, long hollow Unaklum, and fancy pmom fin, als with granules added to their surface like tiny gold islands pom. But it was also flawed by little evidence, dubious methodology, svott simple fantasy. These were evidently 1 ceremonial or funerary items which ultimately could not compete with the trade porcelains introduced from China and Thailand by the tens of thousands.

Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Phiippine Culture and Society

Basi was the mash of cooked rice, already leavened with tapay, soil was favorable, whole islands became coconut plantations with treW which was placed in the jar to produce the liquid pangasi.


The Visayans called large porcelain items— say, 12 or 15 liters— tadyaw.

Pamulongwas the decorated facade; pamgawan, the entrance; ganghaan, a door or window large enough to pass through; while tarandmuan was a window just for looking out. All in all, it was an imaginative and comprehensive synthesis. Vital statistics are completely wanting, as well as figures on production and distribution which would permit an estimate of Filipino living standards before the imposition of colonial burdens.

In Barangaga Bornean in Limasawa reported that two junks were then anchored in Butuan. There are red ones and white. In a good year, men could expect to find as many as fifty hives in one expedition, during which they would sleep in the forest, drive the bees off with smouldering torches, and boil the honey to prevent its souring before they got back with it.

From the slapping sound, pakpak or pikpik, she was also called mamarakpak or mamirikpik. A scoth by English corsair Thomas Cavendish in is suggestive in this connection. In addition, there was a variety of huts balay-balay and temporary shelters for hunters, farmers, and travelers. But by far the richest sources of information on Filipino ethnography are the early seventeenth-century Spanish dictionaries of Philippine lan- guages.

The wi,liam male headdress was the pudong, turban, though in Panay both men and women also wore a headcloth or bandana called potlong or saplung.